安迪Renfree博士,香港大学 运动与运动科学内, School of 运动与运动科学 讨论了t全球流行病已经影响了体育界以及这对未来意味着什么. 

这些限制以及奥运会等重大体育赛事的取消或推迟让许多球迷失望, but in particular the athletes themselves, who may have trained for years for that moment.  禁闭对这些优秀运动员有何短期和长期影响?

A man driving a red formula 1 car

Covid-19大流行对职业和业余体育运动都产生了毁灭性的影响. National 和 international events have been cancelled or postponed, 和 just some of the high profile ‘casualties’ include Euro 2020, all of the World Marathon Majors, 法国公开赛和温布尔登网球公开赛. Though some European football leagues have restarted, f1和高尔夫也是如此, the biggest event in global sport, the Tokyo Olympic Games has been rearranged for July 2021, 这一转变对所有奥运项目的日程都产生了重大影响.

冰球突破现在有一个独特的情况,田径运动员可能面临着世界锦标赛的前景, 一个欧洲冠军, 和 a Commonwealth Games all within a few weeks in the summer of 2022. The organisational 和 financial implications of all this are obviously enormous, but what are the likely effects on the athletes who hope to be competing in them?

运动员面临冠状病毒风险?

Although there are a number of ‘sport’ related challenges facing athletes, it must not be forgotten that they are not immune to the virus itself. Although the majority of cases produce relatively mild symptoms, 风险最大的人群似乎是那些有潜在健康问题的人, 仍有许多年轻健康的人在遭受其影响.

一群穿着鲜艳莱卡服装的跑步者站在跑道上

 

In the first few weeks of the outbreak in the UK, Arsenal manager Mikel Arteta 和 Chelsea player Callum Hudson-Odoi both became ill. Fortunately both made rapid recoveries, but these cases indicate that being young, fit 和 healthy offer no guarantee of protection. 因此,保持安全并尽一切可能避免感染必须仍然是一个优先事项,以保持健康状况并保护传播给高风险个人的风险, 因此,优秀运动员遵守所有社交距离准则是很重要的. 然而, although exercise is undoubtedly a ‘healthy’ thing to do, 还应该注意的是,艰苦的训练也会暂时损害免疫系统. 

This observation was first made at the 1968 Olympic Games in Mexico City, 哪里的医生注意到运动员上呼吸道感染的发病率高于一般人群. 这表明,, 虽然运动员显然不愿意完全停止训练(这几乎是没有必要的), they will need to balance this with the possibility of compromised immune function.

Effect of uncertainty on preparation

运动员和教练需要应对的另一个挑战与不确定性有关. 通常, 体育训练计划是提前数月或数年详细计划的,目的是在期望的时间达到最佳表现水平(这个过程被称为“阶段性”). 然而, 这在目前是不可能的,因为没有人真正知道什么时候事情会恢复正常. 虽然主要活动的日期暂时确定,但其他一切都不确定. Athletes don’t suddenly appear at the Olympic Games fit 和 ready to go, but arrive having qualified 和 completed a variety of build-up competitions. 这些都不能计划在此刻,因为比赛日历目前是空的. 事实上, 考虑到全国锦标赛暂停,训练设施也存在不确定性,运动员如何获得参赛资格甚至都不清楚. 因此,目前特别困难地有效规划培训方案.

Disruption to training schedule

一个女人正在举重训练

Good training relies on appropriate application of stress 和 recovery. 如果没有足够的恢复期,连续数月或数年进行高强度训练是不可能的,这意味着需要决定现在需要做什么.

Training hard too soon risks premature fatigue 和 burnout, 但后退太多可能会导致对之前高强度训练的适应能力丧失.

 

 

Difficulties with training volume

It may also have been difficult, in the early stages of lockdown in particular, to maintain typical training volumes. 在封锁的前七周,英国规定只允许个人每天外出锻炼一次, 但对于优秀运动员来说,经常每天训练两次甚至三次是很常见的.  精英运动员的高训练量也意味着他们容易受伤, but of course there is now very limited access to h和s-on physiotherapy.

 

Availability of training facilities

In addition to uncertainty about timings, 运动员需要克服的一个更实际的后勤问题与训练设施的可用性有关, with gyms 和 public pools previously being shut for long periods. Whilst this may not be too much of a problem for runners 和 cyclists, who generally only require open roads for most of their training, 如果游泳者和潜水者有或仍然没有游泳池,这就给他们带来了巨大的问题.

Getting around this is obviously problematic, although there are examples of individuals who have demonstrated great ingenuity, such as Russian swimmer Yulia Efimova, who used her kitchen furniture to perform sport specific strength training. Of course, these are all individual sports. 在社交距离规则下, 虽然在团队和技术项目的运动员可能已经能够保持一般的健康, it has been extremely difficult to work on sport specific skills or tactics.

Opportunities for athletes in lockdown

a lady is doing yoga on a pink mat

Whilst the impact of the virus p和emic is undoubtedly negative on elite athletes, it has presented potential opportunities. 长期受伤或疲劳的运动员有机会从残酷的比赛和训练计划中恢复精神和身体.

强制停机提供了一个机会,专注于更低强度的一般训练,这可能在一定程度上弥补由于多年的非常具体的运动训练造成的失衡. 因此,运动员面临的主要挑战是保持良好的整体健康以及身体和心理状态,使他们一旦恢复到接近正常的状态,就能迅速恢复正常的训练和比赛活动.

 

Andy Renfree lectures on both the 体育与运动科学理学学士应用运动科学硕士. 他从生理和心理的角度研究运动成绩的决定因素.

这篇文章发表于法规定期更新的时期. Any references to self-isolation, 在写这篇文章的时候,旅行或与他人见面是准确的,但此后指导方针可能发生了变化. 请随时参考 政府最新的建议.

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